What kind of tourism does exist and what types of tourism are present? This chapter explains what types of tourism are present in our region. But first it is important to know what types of tourism do exist in general. There are three main forms of tourism which are domestic tourism, inbound tourism and outbound tourism (UNWTO, n. d. ). The term domestic tourism relates to the activities or journeys of resident visitors within their own country. Inbound tourism describes visits to a country of a non-resident visitor and outbound tourism refers to the visits by residents of one country to another country (Page and Connell, 2009).
The three main types can be combined in different categories of tourism (Figure 1): Internal tourism, which contains domestic tourism and inbound tourism; National tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; further there is International tourism, which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism (UNWTO, n. d. ). Figure 1: Forms of Tourism Source: Wachowiak (2006). But there are many more types of tourism which belong to the main forms that are mentioned above.
Adventure tourism involves practical engagement for the tourists (Hudson, 2003) and its primary activities are outdoor activities such as mountaineering, bungee jumping, climbing, skiing, diving, mountain biking, off-road driving, caving or other specific kinds of sport (Buckley, 2006). Agritourism includes travelling to a farm or ranch and the stay there. The activities range from wine and cheese making to fruit picking. Agritourism is one of the growing forms of tourism in areas like Australia, Canada or the USA (US College Search, n. d. ).
Backpacking is mostly done by the younger generation and viewed less as a vacation and more as a cultural learning experience. The term is often used to describe low-cost and independent international travel. It includes factors such as using public transportation, staying in hostels instead of hotels, and using a backpack for portability (US College Search, n. d. ). Cultural tourism; or heritage tourism; describes the immersion in a society, the history, art and architecture and religion of a destination. The participation in rituals or festivals is also part of cultural tourism.
Dark Tourism which is also called black tourism or grief tourism includes the visit of castles and battlefields, natural or anthropogenic disaster areas as well as prisons and dungeons (US College Search, n. d. ). Ecotourism describes low-impact travel to natural and protected areas with the special goal to observe or to learn about wild plants and animals, as well as present cultures (Page and Connell, 2009). Ethnic tourism focuses on the customs of local tribes for example Eskimos or American Indians (Guest-Host Relationship, n. d. ). Travellers observe the native people without the intent of scientific gain (US College Search, n. . ). Health Tourism which is also called medical tourism means staying away from home with health as the most important motive (Hudson, 2003). If the quality of treatment is low it can be very dangerous for the “tourist”. Health Tourism or medical tourism ranges from complex and dental surgery even to cosmetic surgery (US College Search, n. d. ). Spa tourism is also a part of health tourism. It relates to special facilities and destinations and also refers to hotels or resorts which integrate health facilities with accommodation (Hudson, 2003).
Sustainable Tourism tries to keep the impact on the environment low and involves sustaining a culture’s population, the employment and positive experiences for both residents and tourists (US College Search, n. d. ). Sports tourism includes travelling away from home to see a sporting event or to participate in a sport activity for both recreation and competition (Hudson, 2003). Religious Tourism or faith tourism encompasses tourists whose main motive to travel is to see holy cities or sites like Mecca in Saudi Arabia or the Way of St. James (US College Search, n. d. ).
Wildlife tourism describes the observing of wild animals in their natural habitats. Wildlife watching is connected to adventure tourism because of the way of access to the remote areas or the risk from the animals themselves (Hudson, 2003). Popular countries or continents for wildlife tourism are for example Africa, South America, Australia, India, Canada, Indonesia and Bangladesh (US College Search, n. d. ). East Africa is one of the most famous wildlife watching destinations. It is well known for the “Big Five” lion, leopard, elephant, rhino and buffalo (Buckley, 2006).
The following types of tourism are present in our region: wildlife tourism in the form of wildlife viewing or photographic safaris, hunting and niche markets such as bird watching or birding, climbing or trekking and cultural tourism (The United Republic of Tanzania, n. d. ). In Tanzania Wildlife tourism can be found in The Northern Circuit, which comprises Tanzania’s best known National Parks: Serengeti National Park, Lake Manyara and Tarangire National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation area, Arusha National Park and Mt.
Kilimanjaro National Park. Wildlife Tourism also includes hunting. Hunting as a tourism sector has a long development behind it. It is now well established and in a few years it has been shown an impressive growth. Additionally it is important for Tanzania because it brings foreign exchange to the country (Baldus and Cauldwell, 2004). Bird watching or birding takes place with photographic safaris and can also be found in the Northern circuit (The United Republic of Tanzania, n. . ). Tourism on Mount Kilimanjaro and the nearby Arusha National Park consist mountaineering, rock climbing and trekking (Makonjio Okello and Yerian, 2009) as well as photographic safari and bird watching (The United Republic of Tanzania, n. d. ). Cultural tourism also takes place in Tanzania’s Northern Circuit for examples at the Olduvai Gorge or the Ngorongoro Crater and in villages of Tanzanian people, the best known of them are the Maasai (Makonjio Okello and Yerian, 2009).
As a conclusion one can say that the tourism in Tanzania consists of adventure tourism (climbing or trekking) and cultural tourism. But the main part of tourism in Tanzania is represented by wildlife tourism. Now one can take a closer look on the tourists who visit Tanzania’s Northern Circuit. Is the current tourism sustainable? Tourism in Tanzania depends on the environment and on its natural attractions. Natural attractions such as Serengeti National Park, Arusha National Park and Mt. Kilimanjaro National Park, include areas of great biodiversity and natural beauty.
The continued existence of natural attractions and therefore the tourism industry depends on a sustainable management and on natural conservation. For that reason Tanzania has developed strategies for sustainable tourism (Ministry of natural Resources and Tourism, 1999). According to the Ministry of natural Resources and Tourism (1999) one of the strategies is to develop tourism programs which are environmental friendly. They also want to create a mechanism which guarantees a respect on use of biodiversity and wildlife conservation.