Risky Sexual Behavior Among African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men: The Effects of Peer Norms for Condom Use on Risky Sexual Behavior as Moderated By Socio-Demographic, Socio-Contextual, and Health-Related Variables Richard A. Kirkwood Sr. Social Psychology 360 March 4, 2011 Caroline Cameron The research was conducted to investigate variables for condom use and risky sexual behaviors and examine the contextual influences on the relationship components of peer norms that influence the process of sexual promiscuity among African American MSM.
To analyze the moderating effects of social-demographic, social-contextual, and health related variables (Holliday, 2006). The research hypothesis examined the moderating effect of three paths consisting of socio-demographic, socio-contextual, and health related factors contributing to the relationship between peer norms among African American MSM; pertaining to engagement in unprotected insertive and receptive anal intercourse. Factor Hypothesis 1. Socio-demographics consisted of age, education, employment, sexual identity, preferred role as sex partner, and permanence of sexual partner (primary or casual).
The determination of the hypothesis was to determine the likelihood of African American MSM with low peer norms to engage in risky sexual behaviors based on variables that would cause greater influence in the behavior, based on age (younger/older), employment status (unemployed/employed full or part-time), those that identified as being gay or not, those with a primary male sex partner and those that did not, and those with a causal male sex partner opposed to a permanent male sex partner. 2. Socio-contextual consisted of exposure of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, knowledge of HIV testing, HAART, and HIV treatment beliefs.
The determination of the hypothesis was the moderate relationship between peer norms for condom use and risky sexual behavior among African American MSM with low peer norms based on variables causing a greater influence in risky sexual behavior. These variables were based on the knowledge and awareness of HAART, those that held misleading and inaccurate information about prevention and the effectiveness of HIV treatment than for those that were knowledgeable, those that have been tested and those that have not been tested for HIV, and those that have been tested greater than four months than those that have been tested within four months. . Health related variables consisted of having sexual relations with primary or causal sexual partners, HIV serostatus, and affected or non-affected HIV serostatus of the partner. The determination of the hypothesis was the moderate relationship between condom use and risky sexual behavior among African American MSM with low peer norms based on variables causing a greater influence in risky sexual behavior.
These variables were based on those who were or not under the influence of drugs and alcohol with their primary or casual partner, those who had a positive or negative HIV serostatus, and those who were or not aware of their partners HIV serostatus (Holliday, p 19-20, 2011). The purpose of the study was to conceptualize the peer norms for condom use and risky sexual behaviors concerning the influences of socio-demographic, contextual, and health related variables for African American MSM sexual behavior’s that supported norms for consistent use of condoms in sexual relations with primary and casual partners.
To develop appropriate education, prevention and intervention programs for HIV African American MSM. Methods A sampling protocol randomly used YMSM (young men who sleep with men) who may or may not have identified as gay or bisexual from pre-determined locations and social venues where a sufficient proportion of these men could be located, such as parks, clubs, bookstores, coffee houses, and various social events.
A Venue-day-time units sample (VDTs) was used to select and intercept the collected data from eligible members from the sample population, which was used to construct a sample of known characteristics and construct statistical influences of the population of target venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of bias that may have limit generalization of results to the target population (Muhib et al. , 2001).
Time-space sampling (TSS) provided alternative and traditional probability and non-probability methods of sampling of the VDTs, which were based on criteria of age, race/ethnicity, and same sex activity within the past year. Four waves of data were collected between May and August from 1999-2002 using N= 255 out of total sample of N=1040 participants per wave. The four waves in the current study were not an analytic variable as it was in the original study, this was due because it did not make a difference in the data study (Holliday, p 23, 2006).