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Psychological perspectives: Mylania Wilson Psychological perspectives bring something distinctive to each approach on studying behavior and the human mind. There are seven major perspectives within the field of psychology. Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic perspective is the drive and forces of the unconscious mind. He believed our behavior was determined by childhood experiences. He believed there were three factors of the unconscious mind: the “id”, the “ego”, and the “superego”. The “id” had two instinctual drives. First, was the Eros, which was the sex drive and life instinct. Second, was Thanatos, the death instinct and the aggressive drive towards others. The unconscious mind, the “id”, and the “superego” are always in constant conflict with the conscious part of the mind, the ego. Defense mechanisms are used if the conflict is not resolved. Freud’s theory of psychodynamic approach is often criticized because his case study involved only one category of middle-aged women and was impossible to scientifically test.
Behaviorism attempts to study psychology by focusing on observable actions and events. The school of behaviorism was founded by John B. Watson. He studied the biology, physiology, and behavior of animals. Behaviorist studied only observable behavior that could be supported by empirical data through controlled observation and measurement of behavior. Research is done with both humans and animals. Behaviorism is concerned with how environmental factors affect observable behavior. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two main behaviorist approaches. Classical conditioning involves learning by association. Learning from consequences of the behavior is referred to operant conditioning. Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov studied classical conditioning. He conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell and food. Operant conditioning was studied by B.F. Skinner through voluntary and involuntary behavior. His three main behavior…

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