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When is too much not enough? Attitudes towards and expectancies associated with alcohol use in students.In today’s society attitudes towards alcohol use have become increasing problems, as attitudes have a great impact on the use of alcohol. This topic is important in psychology, as many researchers have tried to solve through various research studies how the type of attitude that one adopts may influence the use of alcohol. Attitudes can be defined as “evaluations people make about objects, ideas, events, or other people. Attitudes can be positive or negative” (Sparknotes). Although it is common in young people to hold positive attitude towards the use of alcohol, as many often report ‘that drinking is seen as a way of having fun and being able to socialize with each other’, this view has been contradicted as researchers have found that negative attitudes seem to play as great a role in the use of alcohol. This essay will discuss and evaluate research studies that examined attitudes towards alcohol use and the various factors that may affect the attitudes towards alcohol use.

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According to Cox and Klinger (1988) (cited by E.Kunchtsche et al 2006 review literature) in their Motivational model of Alcohol use, attitudes towards alcohol use are formed on the basis of an expectancy- a perceived outcome that an individual aims to achieve through the use of alcohol. But whether differences in attitudes (i.e. positive or negative) occur is dependent on the individual’s desired effects arising from the use of alcohol. This is supported by Kuntsche, Knibe, Gmel, & Engels, (2005) (cited by E.Kuntsche et a 2006 ) who found that young adults reported various motivations for the use of alcohol, such as increased sociability, mood enhancement and coping mechanisms. For those who stated coping motives for drinking alcohol, one could argue that they had a negative attitude towards alcohol but that the use of alcohol was used as a mean for overcoming a…

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