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Final Paper – Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric disorder also known as manic depression. It is described as a category of mood disorders. Mood disorders are defined by the presence of one or more episodes known as mania and hypomania. Bipolar disorder affects about five million Americans, about 3 out of every 100 adults. This disorder had been found equally in men and women. The signs and symptoms of major depressive episode are feelings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, anger, isolation, or hopelessness and disturbances in sleep and appetite, fatigue and loss of interest in everyday ctivities, problems concentrating, lonliness, self-loathing, apathy, loss of interest in sexual activity, shyness, social anxiety, irritability, lack of motivation, and suicidal thoughts. In more severe cases, the person may become psychotic, which is a condition known as severe bipolar depression. Manic episodes are characterized by a period of a elevated, expansive, or irritable mood state. People commonly experience an increase in energy and a decreased need in sleep. Attention span is low and a person in a manic state may be easily distracted, judgment may become impaired.

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Their behavior becomes aggressive, intolerant or intrusive, they may feel out of control or unstoppable and their sex drive my increase. Hypomania is a mild to moderate level of mania. It can be characterized by optimism, and decreased need for sleep. Some people have increased creativity while others may have poor judgement and irritability. These people tend to have more energy and become more active than usual. Hypomania can be difficult to diagnose, because it may appear that the individual is happy, although it carries the same risks as mania. Diagnosis can be self reported experiences as well as bnormal behavior witnessed by family and freinds. In this case, treatment will be followed by secondary signs observed by a psychatrist. There is a list of criteria for someone to be diagnosed.

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