Throughout her book are numerous case studies documenting the harmful effects that chemical pesticides have had on the environment? Along with these facts, she explains how in many instances the pesticides have done more harm than good in eradicating the pests they were designed to destroy. In addition to her reports on pesticide use, Miss Carson points out that many of the long-term effects that these chemicals may have on the environment, as well as on humans, are still unknown. Her book as one critic wrote, “dealt pesticides a sharp blow” (Senior Scholastic 1962).
The controversy sparked by Silent Spring led to the enactment of environmental legislation and the establishment of government agencies to better regulate the use of these chemicals * UNCED – Stockholm 1972 * Indira Gandhi and the environment (Project Tiger , Silent valley …. ) * Bhopal Gas disaster – 1984 Rio -1992: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit(Portuguese: Eco ’92) was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 June to 14 June 1992.
The issues addressed included: * systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals * alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change * new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog * the growing scarcity of water Emerging trends in the new economy era * Information revolution * Traditional supply chains to virtual markets Change in Stakeholder relationships (client ,customer, supplier , manufacturers etc.. )
p align=”justify”;Development and History The protection of wildlife has a long tradition in Indian history. Wise use of natural resources was a prerequisite for many hunter-gatherer societies which date back to at least 6000 BC. Extensive clearance of forests accompanied the advance of agricultural and pastoral societies in subsequent millennia, but an awareness of the need for ecological prudence emerged and many so-called pagan nature conservation practices were retained. As more and more land became settled or cultivated, so these hunting reserves increasingly became refuges for wildlife.
Many of these reserves were subsequently declared as national parks or sanctuaries, mostly after Independence in 1947. Examples include Gir in Gujarat, Dachigam in Jammu ; Kashmir, Bandipur in Karnataka, Eravikulum in Kerala, Madhav (now Shivpuri) in Madhya Pradesh, Simlipal in Orissa, and Keoladeo, Ranthambore and Sariska in Rajasthan. Wildlife, together with forestry, has traditionally been managed under a single administrative organisation within the forest departments of each state or union territory, with the role of central government being mainly advisory.
There have been two recent developments. First, the Wildlife (Protection) Act has provided for the creation of posts of chief wildlife wardens and wildlife wardens in the states to exercise statutory powers under the Act. Under this Act, it is also mandatory for the states to set up state wildlife advisory boards. Secondly the inclusion of protection of wild animals and birds in the concurrent list of the constitution, has proved the union with some legislative control over the states in the conservation of wildlife (Pillai, 1982).
The situation has since improved, all states and union territories with national parks or sanctuaries having set up wildlife wings. The adoption of a National Policy for Wildlife Conservation in 1970 and the enactment of the Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972 lead to a significant growth in the protected areas network, from 5 national parks and 60 sanctuaries to 69 and 410 respectively, in 1990 (Panwar, 1990). The complete United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas for India (1993) is given in Appendix 8. These protected areas, shown in Figure 8, are distributed throughout mainland India and its islands.
The network was further strengthened by a number of national conservation projects, notably Project Tiger, initiated in April 1973 by the Government of India with support from WWF (IBWL, 1972; Panwar, 1982), and the crocodile Breeding and Management Project, launched on 1 April, 1975 with technical assistance from UNDP/FAO (Bustard, 1982). Protected Areas of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a chain of highlands running along the western edge of the Indian subcontinent, from Bombay south to the southern tip of the peninsula, through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Covering an estimated area of 159,000 sq. km, the Western Ghats are an area of exceptional biological diversity and conservation interest, and are “one of the major Tropical Evergreen Forest regions in India” (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). As the zone has already lost a large part of its original forest cover (although timber extraction from the evergreen reserve forests in Kerala and Karnataka has now been halted) it must rank as a region of great conservation concern.
The small remaining extent of natural forest, coupled with exceptional biological richness and ever increasing levels of threat (agriculture, reservoir flooding plantations, logging and over exploitation), are factors which necessitate major conservation inputs. ” There are currently seven national parks in the Western Ghats with a total area of 2,073 sq. km (equivalent to 1. 3% of the region) and 39 wildlife sanctuaries covering an area of about 13,862 sq. km (8. 1%). The protected areas of Kerala State are shown in Figure 9. The management status of the wildlife sanctuaries in this part of India varies enormously.
Tamil Nadu’s Nilgiri wildlife sanctuary, for example, has no human inhabitants, small abandoned plantation areas and no produce exploitation, while the Parambikulam wildlife sanctuary in Kerala includes considerable areas of commercial plantations and privately owned estates with heavy resource exploitation. Summary sheets describing some of the protected areas in Kerala State are given in Appendix 9. International Programmes and Conventions India participates with many international agreements and programmes concerned with aspects of nature conservation and sustainable development.
These range from legal instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, which place obligations on those nations which become contracting parties, to scientific programmes such as the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme, a global programme of international scientific cooperation. Examples of agreements and programmes with which India is collaborating include: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Since India became a party to CITES on 18th October 1976 it has provided data annually to the CITES secretariat on the trade of endangered species through its CITES Management Authority.