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Americas 1000-1850

Change Over Time Essay: The Americas 1000-1850 As time progressed from 1000 to about 1500, the economic and political aspects of Latin American and Caribbean culture became more compliant with European norm due to the colonization of land by the Spanish and Portuguese. The stages it went through vary, in that some were temporary while others were endured. Some changes that occurred was the management of the slave trade, and sugar plantation, the different roles of men and women, and the tribute system in the Aztec civilization.

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Slavery was not as popular in the 1300’s in the Americas as it was later on after the Maritime Revolution where slaves were strongly liked for sugar plantation throughout the Caribbean. Slavery soon died down after the 1800’s once people pushed for freedom and equality. Some social conditions such as the attitude towards role of women never really ended, to this day there are people who are sexes and believe that women cannot do the same jobs that men can. In some societies women always played the central role in the household.

For example in the Inca civilization ,which stretched from the Maule River in Chile to northern Ecuador, from the Pacific coast across the Andes to the upper Amazon and, in the south, into Argentina, people were pastoralists and their prosperity and military strength depended on vast herd of llamas and alpacas. Both men and women cared for these herds while the women wove the wool cloth and the men drove the animals in long distance trade. The men also hunted for animals and served as soldiers or administrators and drew away from the villages.

On the other hand women worked on the fields and cultivated food in addition to taking care of the family, and being involved in agricultural tasks. An economic characteristic that occurred in the early 1300’s was the tribute system in the Aztec civilization. People were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. In the Maritime Revolution various European explorers opened new long distance trade routes across the worlds oceans and for the first time they established regular contact among all continents.

For example, Henry the Navigator focused on explorations to Africa and began the capturing and purchasing of African slaves. By the end of the century eighty thousand had been sold to slavery and by the end of the colonial era Africans and their descendants were living throughout Latin America. In the Caribbean sugar became a primary crop and caused an expansion of sugar plantations in the West Indies, which required an increase of slaves from Africa. In the first half of the century approximately 10,000 slaves were transported. In the second half of the century this number increase to an average of 20,000 slaves per year.

As time went by, the number of slaves being sent to sugar plantations grew larger. Another reason for an increase in the need for slaves was because about one third of newly arrived slaves were dying from a seasoning effect, which was a period where slaves adjusted to new climate and environment conditions. Slaves also suffered from diseases they brought from Africa including malaria and smallpox. The Atlantic slave trade became a large economic investment because of both capitalism and mercantilism. Capitalism was a system of large financial institutions including chartered trading companies such as the slave trade.

Mercantilism helped institute capitalism where trade was promoted overseas between a country and its colonies. European colonization of the Americas and the opening up of trade to coastal Africa because of both capitalism and mercantilism created a vast flow of goods. Although there was the abolition of slavery in the western Hemisphere it did no end the discrimination of women. A group of women formed the Women’s Rights Convention in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York. They focused on issues like voting, and economic independence.

From Canada to Argentina and Chile, most women in working class had no direct involvement in these reform movements, but succeeded in transforming gender relations in heir daily lives. The progress in ending racial discrimination was very little. Unlike the Americas, Latin America tended to see racial identity across a range of physical appearances. Throughout the Western Hemisphere many men and women pushed the idea of freedom and citizenship for all races. In 1807 Britain ended its participation in the slave trade and negotiated treaties with Spain and Brazil asking them to withdraw their participation as well.

This was difficult to over come because Brazil illegally important over a half-million more African slaves until the Brazilian parliament abolishing slavery was finally passed in 1888. Cuba also continued to import thousands of African slaves, but finally stopped in 1886. Since slavery ended, the trade between the countries involved in the Atlantic Trade suffered. Because slaves were no being transported from Africa to Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa was not receiving manufactured goods. While changes kept occurring throughout Latin America and the Caribbean there was and still is the constant discrimination towards women.

Women have always been looked upon as the household figure; the one who looks after the children and manages the house. By the 1800’s women began to work outside the home on farms, in markets, and increasingly in factories but there were times where they were no taken seriously and were discriminated against. Latin America and the Caribbean faced many changes in their economic and social conditions during 1000-1850. Some social characteristics including the slave trade demolished after a time period, but some still appear in world history today like the discrimination against women.

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