In our current era, travel requires nothing more than a computer and a couple hundred dollars in the bank. Anyone can simply get on a computer and buy a ticket for the next day to go anywhere in the world he or she wants. Travel has never been faster or more convenient as it is today, and that convenience is what leads to tourism.
Tourism is the largest industry in the world when all of its subgroups are combined; it is difficult to come up with one definition for tourism, but it can be looked at as: The commercial organization and operation of vacations and visits to places of interest, or as listed by the World Tourism Organization: a person traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Both these definitions for the most part capture the essence of tourism. Throughout history there have been a lot of developments that led up to what we can call “modern tourism”.
The most definitive developments have been split up on to five ages called The Five Ages of Hospitality. These ages consist of: The Pre-Industrial Revolution, The Railway Age, The Automobile Age, The Jet Aircraft Age, and the Cruise ship Age. It is difficult to pinpoint the beginning of travel but it is assumed that since the beginning of humanity people were traveling. All travel that took place before any type of engine was invented can be classified as The Preindustrial Age. As early as 312 A. D. Romans built a 100mile road the Bay of Naples because it was a common place for them to visit.
The fact that the Romans traveled 100 miles away from home for leisure qualifies them as tourists. This kind of traveling was common from the 1st- 12th centuries. Even though Islam and other religions were born prior to 700C. E. , religious pilgrimages to Mecca, and Rome did not really start till the early 1,200. When this started Inns began to develop to feed and shelter the travelers. Around the same time Marco Polo was also accommodate by early Inns as he created trade routes from Europe to China. When horse drawn-carriages were prevalent in England posthouses were established to take care of the horses, and travelers.
Even in the Pre-industrial Age the ground work for the upcoming tourism industry can be seen. The next age of hospitality is the Rail Way Age ; Wagon ways were being used in Germany as early as 1550. These primitive railed roads were made with wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads. In the 1770 Iron replaced the wooden rains, and by 1804 with the invention of the high-pressure steam engine platforms were placed on 4 wheels designed to run along track and carried 9 metric tons. In the 1830s the first passenger rail road, The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway opened in Kent England.
The development of the train played a major role in the expansion of several countries in the world, most especially America. Rail way made it possible for goods to travel in a timely manner across the country, and for people to move anywhere with much less difficulty. The same hospitality mindset that was seen in the Pre-Industrial Age was also in the Rail Way Age. Hotels and restaurants were built close to rail road stations for incoming passenger s. In the early 1900s the train popularity declined due to the automobiles invention, and the great depression.
Shortly after the Train invention a new more private and convenient way to travel was invented: the automobile. Though tens of scientists contributed to the making of the modern automobile, Nicolaus August Otto is given the most credit for creating the four-stoke internal combustion engine. Several other engineers Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler perfected and customized Otto’s design, got patents, and started manufacturing cars through the rest of the 1800s and early 1900s. In the start of the 20th century automobiles were mainly for the rich, but entrepreneur Henry Ford would soon produce an automobile that was in reach for the average American.
Ford’s invention the assembly line made it possible for him to mass produce Model –T at a cheap rate. In 1908 the first Model-T debuted at $825, and 4 years later dropped to 575. These extremely economical prices turned the automobile from a luxury item to a staple in American society. People were now allowed to travel at will anywhere they wanted, perpetuating the tourism industry more than any other age. Road side Inns, resorts and attractions specifically for tourist increased tremendously after the mass ownership of automobiles.
After conquering all forms of ground travel, man had some ambitions to take to the sky, thus came the Jet Aircraft Age. Wilbur and Orville Right were the first people to take flight, but their invention was not directly correlated with the commercial flight seen today. Two engineers, Frank Whittle of the United Kingdom and Hans von Ohain of Germany, developed the jet engine during the late 1930s. The first jet engine powered commercial airliner was introduced by the British Overseas Aircraft Corporation (BOAC); the 36-seat plane named Comet, flew for the first time on July 27, 1949.
With the invention of jet aircrafts, exotic resorts can be made accessible, business can be made international, and cheap rates make it easy for the average citizens to explore the world. The last and most recent travel development is The Cruise Ship Age. Modern cruising is the equivalent of a full luxury resort on water; with amenities such as room service, Spa locations, music entertainment, and hundreds more, a cruise ship completely encompasses the definition of tourism. The first ship built just for a leisure sailing experience was the Prinzessin Victoria Luise, and it was completed in 1900.
From there the cruise industry has become much more technological and luxurious. From its humble beginnings in the Pre-Industrial age tourism has become world’s largest industry tourism has, and is showing no signs of slowing down, as technology becomes more advanced and people more open minded. The Jet Aircraft Age As the fourth age of hospitality, the Jet Aircraft Age has paved the way for modern air travel and all that comes with it. To a customer, arriving at his or her destination on time is the main goal, but to an airline manager yield management would drive him or her to do everything possible to ensure the customer comes back.
A big part of customer satisfaction is comfort, and Korean Airlines has taken aerial comfort to a completely different level. In a USA Today article by Ben Mutzabaugh, the Airbus 380’s spaciousness is explained. Out of 407 seats “there are 12 in Kosmo First Class suites and 301 Economy Class seats on the first level. The second level is home to Korean’s Prestige seating section, which includes 94 lie-flat sleepers spaced six feet apart” (Mutzabaugh 1). Though comfort like this can obviously not be seen on every commercial aircraft, it is important for airlines not to lower their standard of service solely to save capital.
A simple definition of hospitality is a relationship between a guest and host in which the host ensures the guests comfort and entertainment, and if businesses fail to act out the word (hospitable) that titles our industry then a poor example is being set for future business owners, and even just average people. Improving quality of service requires that the airlines have minimal cancelations and late arriving flights. “American needs to improve its service to keep attracting passengers, who have many airlines to choose among.
That means arriving on-time more often, which is especially important to business travelers”(David Koenig 1). In 2011 American Airlines had a 20% flight delay rate, and 3. 40% flight cancelation rate. Over 25% of air travel passengers are business related, and if American Airlines is not seen as reliable, they may defaulted a large portion of their customers. Air travel can often be an unstable business, due to its seasonal schedule, and highly perishable assets, running an airline can call for somewhat unethical decisions.
The American Society of Transportation and Logistics wrote an article about the problems with trying to maximizing passenger revenue. “Given fixed capacity, we have the classic challenge of yield management, which American Airlines defined as “maximize passenger revenue by selling the right seats to the right customers at the right time,” and “for the right price”(Rex S. Toh, Peter Raven). Airlines are faced with a problem unique to the tourism and hospitality industry: product perishability. A seat that is not sold on a plane that has departed cannot be inventoried for future sale–it merely vanishes.
To resolve this issue airlines collect averages and statistics on late passenger cancelations, and sporadic no-shows, and if tickets are demanded they overbook on the basis that their statistics will hold up, and some passengers will cancel leaving available seats for the overbooked passengers. Gambles like this are risky because of the uncertainty of the passenger withdrawal. If neither paying customer cancels customers are faced with a new problem: Bumping. Environmental harm is another problem that accompanies the airline business.
Airplanes use hundreds of gallons of fossil fuels by design, and with the environment being a growing concern in our society airlines may find it hard to cope; nevertheless, the Jet Airplane Age plummeted the world into a new era in which long distance travel and tourism is made easy and affordable. The Railway Age The Railway Age pioneered long distance land travel for the entire world, and jumpstarted the tourism industry. Even though Americans used the train for expansion across North America, the rail way system has always been more prevalent in European countries.
Europeans have cultivated their rail infrastructure to be extremely efficient and economical. Europe magazine lists some benefits of train travel. “Western Europe’s rail system remains arguably the world’s most efficient and is a formidable competitor for air travelers, particularly between cities fewer than 400 miles apart. Unaffected by air traffic bottlenecks or most weather problems”(Lever 1). These advantages allow trains to be fast and punctual, and with high-speed rail ways running trains at speeds of up to and over 125 miles per hour, passengers can reach their destinations even faster.
While the European system is time conscious and frugal, the American rail system is laid back. With not as dense of an infrastructure and trains only going about 65mph the American rail system is not a large part of travel society. This may be because America has prided itself in being a car country; many Americans have the mindset that the only way to get around comfortably is to own your own vehicle. While a large portion of the world’s “ 1st and 2nd world” countries use bicycles, busses and trains to go to work or complete any other daily routines they may have.
Despite its lack in comparison to the European system, Americas system has a few things to offer its passengers, for example “sleeping cars and coaches, a dining car and a lounge car, all serving the needs of 200 to 300 passengers. ” ( falseAnonymous 1). Customers on these trains can feel at ease while riding to their destination. Train travel in any country also allows the rider to view whatever scenery may be outside, whether country side, mountains, or a city setting, the passenger can sit back and enjoy the view.
The Railway Age was a tremendous advancement in the field of travel and tourism, but more progress is yet to come. Engineers and scientist around the world have been working on and completed a new style of train called the magnetic levitation train or maglev. This type of train is powered by polar magnets, which allow the train to literally levitate of the track. Michelle Mowad, a writer for the San Diego Business Journal, thinks that “At an estimated cost of 15 billion dollars a maglev extends the life of airports and ease highway congestion” (Mowad 1). A maglev train can reach speeds of 300 miles per our safely, and because it is magnetically propelled no greenhouse gases are emitted into the environment. Innovations like this are widely needed in today’s day, especially with America’s climbing rank on the green house emission charts. Transportation modes are a large part of the reason so many greenhouse gases come from America; Producing 18% of the world’s total greenhouse pollution America is second only to China. The problem with maglevs is they require a completely different type of rail infrastructure, and countries do not have the extra capital to spend on projects like this.
Even though the technology has been around for several years, Shanghai China, and a few European countries are the only countries with an active commercial maglev train. Even though some technology is held back, the Rail Way Age was still very meaningful to the progression of the tourism industry. The Cruise Ship Age By definition a cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship’s amenities are part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way. For example a ship leaving New Orleans makes stops in the western Caribbean, Mexico and Central America.
Cruise ships can only be described as a floating resort; the hospitality on cruise ships is often unmatched, from twenty-four hour room service, to massages Cruise lines have completely epitomized the hospitality and tourism industry. Lodging & Hospitality magazine wrote a report on Allure of the Seas, one of the biggest cruise liners in the world. With 2,704 rooms the “ 16-deck, 220,000-ton ship has seven themed areas, including Central Park, Young Zone and Vitality at Sea Spa and Fitness Center […]2,210 ocean view units, 28 loft suites, 14 Aqua Theater suites and a presidential suite that sleeps 14”(L&H).
From these descriptions it is obvious that the sole purpose of the cruise liner is for the guests to enjoy themselves. The cruise industry aims to define fun while also maximizing revenue by charging for some on ship purchases and activities in addition to the base fee. Cruise ship hotels and restaurant can have a hard time with supply because of its quarantine; on a land based resort if a good is finished, one can simply call a truck to come and replenish the supply, but on a ship, managers have to be careful and ration the food for up to two weeks sometimes, while making the guests still feel ike there are no restraints. Guests go on vacation to get away from worries in their daily lives, if those worries are brought to the ship, then the experience is meaningless. An idea to address this problem is to have needed supplies ready at one or more of the cruises stops, and replenish while the customers are touring the destination. Another big problem on cruise ships is the amount of waste they produce. Because of the number of activities and people onboard any given cruise ships the amount of waste is virtually inevitable.
Everything used produces some type of waste , whether it be a customer eating a candy bar and throwing away the wrapper, or left over grease from the fryers in the kitchen the waste builds up, and ship mangers sometimes decide to dispose of it in the ocean rather than pay for a proper disposal. “On average, a cruise ship generates 140,000 to 210,000 gallons of sewage and a million gallons of wastewater from sinks, showers and laundries each week […] A ship can also produce more than 25,000 gallons of oily bilge water from engines and machinery” (Choi 1). Before there were laws against it, cruise ships simply dumped their waste in the ocean.
Managers and even just people in general don’t stop to think about the future, but rather just about the money they can make or save at that moment. In addition to the waste they produce, cruise ships’ fuel often contains sulfur dioxide; ships sometimes incinerate garbage, releasing dioxins and fine particles that can trigger respiratory fatigue. In January 2007, Celebrity Cruises paid $100,000 to Washington State after its ship the Mercury violated an agreement and dumped more than a half-million gallons of untreated wastewater in the Strait of Juan de Fuca in 2005, a few miles from commercial shellfish beds.
The Mercury case is a prime example of inconsiderate managing. Any wise manager considers the worst case scenarios of their decisions before making them. By choosing to discard excrements into the ocean the ships manager endangered human lives not even on the cruise, which is simply unacceptable. Despite its difficulties, the cruise industry is booming, and most likely keep booming for decades to come. Conclusion Overall, the hospitality and tourism industry has evolved tremendously since its humble beginnings in the 6th century.
The advancements in these five ages have allowed the average citizen to explore places he or she has never been before. Apart from an exciting vacation story, travel has opened the door to new global mindsets. Humans have never been more open minded, or accepting of other cultures and It’s all due to fast travel. Increased communication with other parts of the world enhances trade and breaks down racist barriers. Modern travel has made the human species as a whole smarter, more well-rounded, and brought us closer to world peace; where would the world be without it?